Fabo, B. et al.An overview of European platforms: Scope and business models


Brian Fabo, Miroslav Beblavý , Zachary Kilhoffer & Karolien Lenaerts


Publications Office of the European Union, Joint Research Centre, JRC109190

The platform economy has become an important consideration within the European Commission’s Digital Economy agenda. By mapping the platform economy within the 28 European Union (EU) Member States, this report draws on a database of 200 service platforms active in Europe, and aims to serve as a resource for the development of a European policy response. It identifies a huge diversity of platforms within the EU in terms of size, geographical scope, services offered and business models. Further, the innovative potential of platforms is confirmed, notably the way in which they employ technology to facilitate socially beneficial activities, such as volunteering or ridesharing. At the same time, one can note the tendency of a number of platforms to withhold information about their functioning. There are also inconsistencies in the treatment of service providers, whose autonomy in organising their work is quite limited even though their status is almost universally that of independent contractors, which raises questions about the protection of workers. The European platform environment comprises both domestic and international actors, with the latter usually being the market leaders. These platforms often operate across national boundaries, strengthening the case for EU-level intervention.

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